Pakistan Signed Defence Agreement
Pakistan and China signed an agreement on Monday to strengthen bilateral defence cooperation and capacity building for the Pakistani military. The security partnership between Islamabad and Moscow has grown and expanded since late 2014, when the two former rivals signed their defence cooperation agreement. Pakistan has long had well-developed defence, economic and strategic cooperation with China. Defence cooperation is the backbone of Pakistan-China relations, with frequent high-level military exchanges, joint exercises, personnel training, defence and security talks, joint defence production and defence trade. The two neighbours also have a wide range of cooperations, including defence partnerships, joint ventures, including the production of aircraft, submarines, tanks and other military equipment. In December of this year – although Pakistan had never made a pact with the United States or received military assistance until then – Nehru suggested that he could not continue the agreements established in the joint communiqué on Kashmir, because “the whole context in which these agreements were concluded will change when military aid [to Pakistan] came from the United States.” [iii] Clearly, Pakistan could not allow Mr. Nehru to dictate his foreign policy. In May 1954, Pakistan signed the Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement with the United States. From that date on, the fact that the Indian Prime Minister would reject the joint communiqué on Kashmir became an obvious conclusion. Pakistan`s efforts to save him finally failed when the prime ministers last met in May 1955. Although details of the new agreement were not immediately available, another agreement was signed last year, when the Vice-President of the Central Military Commission (CMC), General Xu Qiliang, visited Rawalpindi to develop defence cooperation and “capacity building of the Pakistani army”. China and Pakistan signed a new Memorandum of Understanding to strengthen their already close defence relations when The Minister of Defense and General of the People`s Liberation Army of China, Wei Fenghe, met with Pakistani leaders in Islamabad and visited the army headquarters in Rawalpindi. After Pakistan voted to give China a seat at the United Nations, the Chinese withdrew the controversial cards in January 1962 and agreed to begin border talks in March.
The willingness of the Chinese to accede to the agreement was welcomed by the Pakistani people. Negotiations between the nations officially began on 13 October 1962 and resulted in the signing of an agreement on 2 March 1963.  It was signed by Foreign Minister Chen Yi for the Chinese and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto for the Pakistanis. “A MoU has been signed to improve defence cooperation and capacity building for the Pakistani army,” the Pakistani military said. The agreement was moderately economicly beneficial for Pakistan, which obtained pastures in the agreement, but much more important politically, as it reduced both the potential for conflict between China and Pakistan and, according to Syed, “China has formally and firmly declared that Kashmir does not yet belong to India.  The 1963 period, which referred to the case, expressed the view that, in signing the agreement, Pakistan had further dampened the “hopes for a settlement” of the Kashmir conflict between Pakistan and India.